Conformity bias refers to our tendency to take cues for proper behavior in most contexts from the actions of others rather than exercise our own independent judgment. Conformity bias may occur when we face peer pressure or are trying to fit into particular professional or social environments.
Three types of bias can be distinguished: information bias, selection bias, and confounding. These three types of bias and their potential solutions are discussed using various examples.
Here are four of the primary biases that can have an impact on how you lead your team and the decisions you make.
- Affinity bias. Affinity bias relates to the predisposition we all have to favour people who remind us of ourselves. ...
- Confirmation bias. ...
- Conservatism bias. ...
- Fundamental attribution error.
A confirmation bias is a type of cognitive bias that involves favoring information that confirms previously existing beliefs or biases. For example, imagine that a person holds a belief that left-handed people are more creative than right-handed people.
There are a great number of ways that bias can occur, these are a few common examples:
- Recall bias. ...
- Selection bias. ...
- Observation bias (also known as the Hawthorne Effect) ...
- Confirmation bias. ...
- Publishing bias.
Overconfidence bias is the tendency for a person to overestimate their abilities. It may lead a person to think they're a better-than-average driver or an expert investor.
Recency bias is a psychological phenomenon where we give more importance to recent events compared to what happened a while back.
Affinity bias, also known as similarity bias, is the tendency people have to connect with others who share similar interests, experiences and backgrounds.
The human brain is powerful but subject to limitations. Cognitive biases are often a result of your brain's attempt to simplify information processing. Biases often work as rules of thumb that help you make sense of the world and reach decisions with relative speed. Some of these biases are related to memory.
There are two main types of bias to be aware of, conscious bias and unconscious bias.
Confounding bias: A systematic distortion in the measure of association between exposure and the health outcome caused by mixing the effect of the exposure of primary interest with extraneous risk factors.
Conscious Bias: Biased attitudes about a group we are aware of; can be (in)visible; can be accessed. Unconscious Bias: Biased attitude operating outside your awareness and control, are difficult to access or be aware of, & influence your action more than conscious biases.
Cognitive biases generally apply to how we use clinical data, while implicit biases color how we use that data through the lens of an individual patient's personal characteristics, such as age, race, gender, and socioeconomic status.
The primacy effect is a cognitive bias and refers to an individual's tendency to better remember the first piece of information they encounter than the information they receive later on.
Historical writings were created by people whose opinions and experiences influenced their point of view and this is reflected in what they wrote.
Attentional bias refers to how a person's perception is affected by selective factors in their attention. Attentional biases may explain an individual's failure to consider alternative possibilities when occupied with an existing train of thought.
Examples of the hindsight bias include a person believing they predicted who would win an election or sporting event. Students might assume that they could predict the questions and answers on exams, which can affect how much effort they devote to studying.
Anchoring and adjustment bias imply that investors perceive new information through an essentially warped lens. They place undue emphasis on statistically arbitrary, psychologically determined anchor points.
Optimistic bias is commonly defined as the mistaken belief that one's chances of experiencing a negative event are lower (or a positive event higher) than that of one's peers.
Fragmentation/Isolation: Separating issues relating to people of color and women (or other protected groups) from the main body of text. Linguistic Bias: Excluding the roles and importance of females by constant use of the generic "he" and sex-biased words.
Social bias can be positive and negative and refers to being in favor or against individuals or groups based on their social identities (e.g., race, gender, etc.).