The light-independent reactions of photosynthesis take place within the stroma. It contains enzymes that work with ATP and NADPH to “fix” carbon from carbon dioxide into molecules that can be used to build glucose. The chloroplast's own genetic material (separate from that of the cell) is also stored in the stroma.
The light-independent reactions take place in the chloroplast stroma. 3. ATP is consumed by light-independent reactions.
In plants, the light reactions take place in the thylakoid membranes of organelles called chloroplasts. Photosystems, large complexes of proteins and pigments (light-absorbing molecules) that are optimized to harvest light, play a key role in the light reactions.
Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts, the light-dependent reactions are located on the innermost membrane of chloroplasts called thylakoid membrane and light-independent reactions occur in the cytoplasm of the chloroplasts called stroma .
C3 photosynthesis is the main type of photosynthesis occurring in every photosynthetic plant. Generally, it undergoes the standard mechanism of the Calvin cycle, following the light reaction. Therefore, the first step of the Calvin cycle is the carbon dioxide fixation in the C3 photosynthesis.
C3 photosynthesis is the major of the three metabolic pathways for carbon fixation by plants. This process uses the enzyme RuBisCO in relatively inefficient conditions, to fix CO2 from the air and obtain the 3-carbon organic intermediate molecule 3-phosphoglycerate.
The Calvin cycle, Calvin–Benson–Bassham (CBB) cycle, reductive pentose phosphate cycle (RPP cycle) or C3 cycle is a series of biochemical redox reactions that take place in the stroma of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms.
The conversion of CO2 to carbohydrate is called Calvin Cycle or C3 cycle and is named after Melvin Calvin who discovered it. The plants that undergo the Calvin cycle for carbon fixation are known as C3 plants. Calvin Cycle requires the enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase commonly called RuBisCO.
Light-independent reaction is a series of biochemical reactions in photosynthesis not requiring light to proceed, and ultimately produce organic molecules from carbon dioxide. The energy released from ATP (produced during the light reactions) drives this metabolic pathway.
Figure: The two stages of photosynthesis: Photosynthesis takes place in two stages: light-dependent reactions and the Calvin cycle (light-independent reactions).
Once the light reactions have occurred, the light-independent or "dark" reactions take place in the chloroplast stroma.
So, the correct answer is 'In C3 plant - mesophyll cell and In C4 plant - Bundle sheath cell'.
C3 Pathway (Calvin Cycle)
The majority of plants produce 3-carbon acid called 3-phosphoglyceric acid (PGA) as a first product during carbon dioxide fixation. Such a pathway is known as the C3 pathway which is also called the Calvin cycle.
The light-independent reactions (also called the Calvin Cycle or the dark reactions) take place in the stroma. The stroma is the fluid that fills the chloroplast.
The light-independent reactions of photosynthesis are chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose. These reactions occur in the stroma, the fluid-filled area of a chloroplast outside of the thylakoid membranes.
The Calvin Cycle
Once in the mesophyll cells, CO2 diffuses into the stroma of the chloroplast, the site of light-independent reactions of photosynthesis.
In the light-dependent reactions, energy from sunlight is absorbed by chlorophyll and that energy is converted into stored chemical energy. In the light-independent reactions, the chemical energy harvested during the light-dependent reactions drives the assembly of sugar molecules from carbon dioxide.
The light-independent reactions (also known as the Calvin cycle) can be organized into three basic stages: fixation, reduction, and regeneration (Video 13.6. 1).
Unlike the light reactions, which take place in the thylakoid membrane, the reactions of the Calvin cycle take place in the stroma (the inner space of chloroplasts).
C3 cycle is also known as Calvin cycle as it was discovered by Melvin Calvin while radioactive studies of alga. It occurs in all photosynthetic plants whether they have C3 or C4 pathway.
C3 plants use the C3 pathway or Calvin cycle for the dark reaction of photosynthesis. C4 plants use the C4 pathway or Hatch-Slack Pathway for the dark reaction of photosynthesis. These plants are cool-season plants, commonly found in cool and wet areas. These plants are warm-season plants, commonly found in dry areas.
b) C3 cycle occurs in the mesophyll cells and C4 cycle occurs in the bundle sheath cells.
C3 photosynthesis produces a three-carbon compound via the Calvin cycle while C4 photosynthesis makes an intermediate four-carbon compound that splits into a three-carbon compound for the Calvin cycle. Plants that use CAM photosynthesis gather sunlight during the day and fix carbon dioxide molecules at night.
The majority of plants and crop plants are C3 plants, referring to the fact that the first carbon compound produced during photosynthesis contains three carbon atoms. Under high temperature and light, however, oxygen has a high affinity for the photosynthetic enzyme Rubisco.