Architecture came from the Latin word “architectura” or from the Greek word “arkhitekton.” Arkhi meaning “chief” and tekton meaning “builder.” The product of architecture are often buildings, and historical buildings are usually considered achievements in architecture. Architecture, however, is a general term.
first architect in history was Imhotep. As one of the officials of the Pharaoh Djoser, he designed the Pyramid of Djoser (the Step Pyramid) at Saqqara in Egypt in 2630 – 2611 BC. He may have been responsible for the first known use of columns in architecture.
Vitruvius Pollio (born c. 80–70 BC, died after c. 15 BC), is often considered as the first recognisable 'architect', known as a great Roman writer, engineer and builder.
There are five major orders: Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, Tuscan, and Composite.
The root of the word architecture is the Greek arkhitekton ("master builder"), which makes sense because the ancient Greeks were very skilled at architecture — think of all those columns and stadiums and temples.
The word came into English in the 1560s, from the Greek architekton, meaning 'master builder'. 'Architecture' has long been used for any complicated system, and, from the 1960s, computers.
The purpose of Architecture is to improve human life. Create timeless, free, joyous spaces for all activities in life. The infinite variety of these spaces can be as varied as life itself and they must be as sensible as nature in deriving from a main idea and flowering into a beautiful entity.
Roman architecture covers the period from the establishment of the Roman Republic in 509 BC to about the 4th century AD, after which it becomes reclassified as Late Antique or Byzantine architecture.
The three major classical orders are Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. The orders describe the form and decoration of Greek and later Roman columns, and continue to be widely used in architecture today. The Doric order is the simplest and shortest, with no decorative foot, vertical fluting, and a flared capital.
Roman columns were central elements of the grand buildings and temples associated with ancient Rome. The column types were called Doric, Ionic and Corinthian.
Architectural style evolved into something much more graceful through the Byzantine and Romanesque periods. It was during 527 – 1200 that the majority of architecture began to use brick instead of stone, changing forever the way that buildings would be constructed.
Knowledge of architectural history gives an understanding of the ideas that were important to and shaped past societies. A building can reveal much about the society that produced it.
MoMA explores an era of sweeping change, when South Asian architects — pioneering women, among them — redefined the postcolonial era and helped construct new nation states.
Prehistoric architecture includes monumental structures such as Stonehenge, cliff dwellings in the Americas, and thatch and mud structures lost to time. The dawn of architecture is found in these structures. Prehistoric builders moved earth and stone into geometric forms, creating our earliest human-made formations.
Architectural types. Architecture is created only to fulfill the specifications of an individual or group. Economic law prevents architects from emulating their fellow artists in producing works for which the demand is nonexistent or only potential.
Roman columns were purely for decoration, unlike Greek columns that were used to support their buildings and temples.
The two principal orders in Archaic and Classical Greek architecture are the Doric and the Ionic. In the first, the Doric order, the columns are fluted and have no base. The capitals are composed of two parts consisting of a flat slab, the abacus, and a cushionlike slab known as the echinus.
The three orders of architecture—the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian—originated in Greece.
Roman builders employed Greeks in many capacities, especially in the great boom in construction in the early Empire. Roman architecture covers the period from the establishment of the Roman Republic in 509 BC to about the 4th century AD, after which it becomes reclassified as Late Antique or Byzantine architecture.
600 BC – Rome: Although the Ancient Romans weren't the first to create concrete, they were first to utilize this material widespread. By 200 BC, the Romans successfully implemented the use of concrete in the majority of their construction. They used a mixture of volcanic ash, lime, and seawater to form the mix.
Whereas the Greeks favored marble, the Romans invented concrete, and they relied on this key building material in much of their architecture. Romans also emphasized circular forms and made extensive use of the arch, vault, and dome in their building projects, unlike the post-and-lintel structure of Greek buildings.
Throughout history, societies have developed unique types of architecture, reflecting local cultural, geographic, and economic forces.
Designing for social causes
Looking at the harsh reality of the world, and horrible situations people face, architecture can be used to help improve the lives of underprivileged people, people facing social injustice, and people who lack basic comforts- food, shelter, and water.
But it is also important to remember that drawing is a skill that sits beside other skills which make for a great architect: analysis, synthesis, creative problem-solving, sensitivity and understanding around peoples needs/wants, So you don't need to be 'good' at drawing.