Starquakes: Looking Inside a Star. Starquakes create cracks that allow astronomers and astrophysicists to peer inside stars. Conny Aerts, of the University of Leuven, says quakes creates waves that lets them measure gases inside stars, their density, temperature, chemistry.
Starquake. A starquake is an astrophysical phenomenon that occurs when the crust of a neutron star undergoes a sudden adjustment, analogous to an earthquake on Earth.
A starquake is vaguely similar to an earthquake but occurs on a magnetar, a mysterious type of star that is extremely dense and magnetic. To date, scientists have only identified 23 magnetars, and recorded three starquakes: one each in 1979, 1998 and 2004.
The magnetic field of a magnetar would be lethal even at a distance of 1,000 km due to the strong magnetic field distorting the electron clouds of the subject's constituent atoms, rendering the chemistry of known lifeforms impossible.
Although magnetars are incredibly powerful, they would lose the battle with a black hole. Depending on the trajectory of the magnetar, as well as the size and mass of both the magnetar and the black hole, the magnetic monster would be eaten up either whole, or slowly, piece by piece.
These explosions generate beams of high-energy radiation, called gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which are considered by astronomers to be the most powerful thing in the universe.
Now, new observations of a candidate magnetar have confirmed that it has a magnetic field 600 trillion times the strength of Earth's field – powerful enough to explain the 'starquake' it experienced in 2003.
On December 27, 2004, several satellites and telescopes from around the world detected an explosion on the surface of SGR 1806-20, a neutron star 50,000 light years away. The resulting flash of energy -- which lasted only a tenth of a second -- released more energy than the Sun emits in 150,000 years.
The nearest known magnetar to Earth is 1E 1048.1-5937, located 9,000 light-years away in the constellation Carina.
Moonquakes – as they are known on the moon – are produced as a result of meteoroids hitting the surface or by the gravitational pull of the Earth squeezing and stretching the moon's interior, in a similar way to the moon's tidal pull on Earth's oceans.
The new seismic events are the largest marsquakes to ever be recorded. NASA's marsquake-hunting lander has detected its two largest seismic events to date — and on the far side of the planet, no less. NASA's InSight lander touched down on Mars in November 2018 carrying the most sensitive seismometer ever designed.
By tearing open large swaths of crust near the magnetar's poles, where its magnetic field lines splay out into space, a large quake could instantaneously disgorge vast volumes of plasma, sending electrons and positrons rocketing into space at relativistic speeds, approaching that of light.
A magnetar is an exotic type of neutron star, its defining feature that it has an ultra-powerful magnetic field. The field is about 1,000 times stronger than a normal neutron star and about a trillion times stronger than the Earth's. Magnetars are, by far, the most magnetic stars in the universe.
They are 1⁄10 to 1⁄100 the brightness of a typical supernova, the self-detonation of a massive star.
Magnetars in the Milky Way
Scientists have confirmed the presence of 23 known magnetars, and another six are waiting additional data to confirm if they meet the criteria to be considered magnetars. Many of these are located in the Milky Way, but don't worry: None are close to Earth!
A gamma ray burst, the most powerful explosion known in the Universe, may have hit the Earth in the 8th Century. In 2012 researchers found evidence that our planet had been struck by a blast of radiation during the Middle Ages, but there was debate over what kind of cosmic event could have caused this.
No, it's a runaway neutron star, called RX J185635-3754, forged in a stellar explosion that would have been visible to our distant ancestors in 1 million B.C. Precise observations made with NASA's Hubble telescope confirm that the interstellar interloper turns out to be the closest neutron star ever seen.
A soft gamma repeater (SGR) is an astronomical object which emits large bursts of gamma-rays and X-rays at irregular intervals. It is conjectured that they are a type of magnetar or, alternatively, neutron stars with fossil disks around them.
The blast of energy surged away from the magnetar, out into the galaxy. In just 200 milliseconds—a fifth of a second, literally the blink of an eye—the eruption gave off as much energy as the Sun does in a quarter of a million years. Map of Milky Way galaxy, showing the location of the magnetar and the Earth.
This one is Extra Strange. It's Also a Pulsar. Some of the most stunningly powerful objects in the sky aren't necessarily the prettiest to look at.
Most neutron stars are observed as pulsars. Pulsars are rotating neutron stars observed to have pulses of radiation at very regular intervals that typically range from milliseconds to seconds. Pulsars have very strong magnetic fields which funnel jets of particles out along the two magnetic poles.
Albert Einstein said, “The most powerful force in the Universe is compound interest.” He referred to it as one of the greatest “miracles” known to man. Compound interest is interest added to the principal of your investment so that from that moment on, the added interest also earns interest.
The singularity at the center of a black hole is the ultimate no man's land: a place where matter is compressed down to an infinitely tiny point, and all conceptions of time and space completely break down. And it doesn't really exist.
In theory, any mass can be compressed sufficiently to form a black hole. The only requirement is that its physical size is less than the Schwarzschild radius. For example, our Sun would become a black hole if its mass was contained within a sphere about 2.5 km across.