Prerequisite to phonological awareness is basic listening skill; the acquisition of a several-thousand word vocabulary; the ability to imitate and produce basic sentence structures; and the use of language to express needs, react to others, comment on experience, and understand what others intend.
“Phonemic awareness is the most fundamental precursor to reading,” Baicker says. “Building phonemic awareness begins with word play — listening to sounds, exaggerating them, and manipulating them. Phonics, decoding, fluency, and comprehension can't take place without the ability to break words into units of sound.”
Include some of the 'buddy letters' (digraphs) early: The common digraphs 'th', 'sh' and 'ch' should be taught early in your sequence. This is important so that the student learns the important concept that 2 letters make 1 sound.
Phonological awareness skills are best taught in kindergarten and early Grade 1 so they can be applied to sounding out words as phonics instruction begins.
One of the easiest ways to teach early phonemic awareness is to work with rhyming words. All of these exercises can be played as a game to make learning fun. Stop when your child shows signs of distress and pick it up again another day. You would be amazed at how much can be accomplished in a few minutes every day.
In first grade, phonics lessons start with the most common single-letter graphemes and digraphs (ch, sh, th, wh, and ck). Continue to practice words with short vowels and teach trigraphs (tch, dge). When students are proficient with earlier skills, teach consonant blends (such as tr, cl, and sp).
So, which graphemes are taught first? Graphemes that should be taught first are the most common single-letter graphemes (t; a; s; n; p and i) and some digraph (two-letter) graphemes (ch; sh; th; wh and ck).
As soon as the learner acquires one letter sound correspondence, introduce a new one. Letters that occur frequently in simple words (e.g., a, m, t) are taught first. Letters that look similar and have similar sounds (b and d) are separated in the instructional sequence to avoid confusion.
The levels become more complex as students progress from the word level to syllables, to onset and rime, and then to phonemes. Notice the arrow along the left-hand side. Students progress down each level—learning increasingly more complex skills within a level. For example, look at the Phoneme Awareness column.
Phonemic awareness instruction typically spans two years, kindergarten and first grade. Oral activities in kindergarten focus on simple tasks such as rhyming, matching words with beginning sounds, and blending sounds into words.
Oral blending and oral segmenting are the main aspects of phonemic awareness and are very important skills to develop when learning to read and spell. Oral Blending focuses on the sounds we hear, rather than the words we see.
Teach the most common letter names first, the less common letter names last (q, z, x.). Every syllable of every word must have a vowel sound and there are many alternative spellings of vowel sounds, so it is very important that students have a sound knowledge of these.
First, start with s, a, t, p, i, n. This combination of letters is perfect for introducing letter names and sounds and then actually APPLYING what you are teaching. These letters also make up the most frequent words that are found in emerging readers.
Others have theorized that the order came from a mnemonic device meant to help people remember it—some kind of sentence where each letter became a full word, like the technique you used in school to remember the order of the planets.
Start with simple beginning and ending digraphs such as wh, ck, sh, th, and ch. Don't forget to incorporate phonemic awareness activities while learning and practicing words with digraphs!
(Nursery/Reception) Activities are divided into seven aspects, including environmental sounds, instrumental sounds, body sounds, rhythm and rhyme, alliteration, voice sounds and finally oral blending and segmenting. Phase Two (Reception) up to 6 weeks Learning 19 letters of the alphabet and one sound for each.
After CVC words, phonics instruction moves on to slightly more complicated patterns such as CVCC words and CCVC words. CVCC words such as jump, gulp, and lift follow the pattern of consonant-vowel-consonant-consonant. CCVC words such as trip, spin, and clap follow the pattern of consonant-consonant-vowel-consonant.
To get started with long vowel sounds, we begin teaching the silent e. It's important for kids to understand that every vowel will change its sound when a silent e is put after the CVC form of a word. For instance, if you put an e after the CVC word tap, the word changes to tape, and the vowel sound produced changes.
It is also a good idea to begin instruction in sound-letter relationships by choosing consonants such as f, m, n, r, and s, whose sounds can be pronounced in isolation with the least distortion. Stop sounds at the beginning or middle of words are harder for children to blend than are continuous sounds.