The most common types of mood disorders are major depression, dysthymia (dysthymic disorder), bipolar disorder, mood disorder due to a general medical condition, and substance-induced mood disorder. There is no clear cause of mood disorders.
Bipolar I - This is the most severe form. Manic episodes last at least seven days or may be severe enough to require hospitalization. Depressive episodes will also occur, often lasting for at least two weeks.
New developments in the psychotic and mood disorders in DSM-5 include the recognition of catatonia as a clinical state and the addition of three new disorders: disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, persistent depressive disorder, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
Mood disorder is a broad term that refers to the different types of depressive and bipolar disorders, all of which affect mood. If you have symptoms of a mood disorder, your moods may range from extremely low (depressed) to extremely high or irritable (manic).
If you have a mood disorder, your general emotional state or mood is distorted or inconsistent with your circumstances and interferes with your ability to function. You may be extremely sad, empty or irritable (depressed), or you may have periods of depression alternating with being excessively happy (mania).
It's normal for your mood to change in response to different situations, news, or challenges you encounter throughout a day. But if your mood shifts dramatically between extreme highs and lows, it may be a sign of bipolar disorder. Mood episodes lasting at least four days are a sign of bipolar disorder.
Though many different subtypes are recognized, three major states of mood disorders exist: depressive, manic, and bipolar. Major depressive disorder is characterized by overall depressed mood. Elevated moods are characterized by mania or hypomania.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that may occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event such as a natural disaster, a serious accident, a terrorist act, war/combat, or rape or who have been threatened with death, sexual violence or serious injury.
These include carbamazepine, divalproex and lamotrigine. Gabapentin and topiramate are also anticonvulsants that may act as mood stabilizers, but they are usually given in addition to other medications.
Cyclothymia, or cyclothymic disorder, causes mood changes – from feeling low to emotional highs.
Mood Disorders Are Not Anxiety Disorders
Anxiety does affect the mood, but it cannot be considered as a mood disorder. The simple reason being, anxiety affects an individual's mood, but is not directly related to mood. Anxiety can lead to the development of feelings like hopelessness, fear and several other emotions.
Bipolar disorder is primarily a mood disorder. ADHD affects attention and behavior; it causes symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. While ADHD is chronic or ongoing, bipolar disorder is usually episodic, with periods of normal mood interspersed with depression, mania, or hypomania.
Borderline personality disorder is not a mood disorder. It is classified as a personality disorder. The symptoms of borderline personality disorder can result in mood problems, but the illness is not defined by changes in mood. The symptoms of borderline personality disorder are relational.
A sub-set of these psychiatric disorders is identified by the ICD-9-CM4 as episodic mood disorders. These include bipolar I disorder, manic affective disorder, and major depressive affective disorder.
Prevalence of Any Mood Disorder Among Adults
An estimated 21.4% of U.S. adults experience any mood disorder at some time in their lives.
When your mood shifts to mania or hypomania (less extreme than mania), you may feel euphoric, full of energy or unusually irritable. These mood swings can affect sleep, energy, activity, judgment, behavior and the ability to think clearly. Episodes of mood swings may occur rarely or multiple times a year.
People with mood disorders often have imbalances in certain neurotransmitters, particularly norepinephrine and serotonin (Thase, 2009). These neurotransmitters are important regulators of the bodily functions that are disrupted in mood disorders, including appetite, sex drive, sleep, arousal, and mood.
Children with conduct disorder have a difficult time following rules and behaving in a socially acceptable way. Their behavior can be hostile and sometimes physically violent. In their earlier years, they may show early signs of aggression, including pushing, hitting and biting others.
Roughly half of all lifetime mental disorders in most studies start by the mid‐teens and three‐fourths by the mid‐20s. Later onsets are mostly secondary conditions. Severe disorders are typically preceded by less severe disorders that seldom are brought to clinical attention.