Stage 2 liver cancer means that there is a single tumour that is more than 2 cm, and it has grown into blood vessels of the liver. Or it means that there are several tumours in the liver and they are all less than 5cm. Stage 2 liver cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes or other areas of the body.
Recent work indicates that with colorectal liver metastases, careful MRI or CT should detect 95% or more of lesions larger than about 15 mm. The real issue now is the accuracy of detection for lesions smaller than this.
A single tumor 2 cm (4/5 inch) or smaller that hasn't grown into blood vessels (T1a). It has not spread to nearby lymph nodes (N0) or to distant sites (M0). A single tumor larger than 2cm (4/5 inch) that hasn't grown into blood vessels (T1b).
Size – Most incidental liver lesions <1 cm are benign, while some small lesions may be difficult to definitively characterize by imaging methods [13,14]. Most lesions ≥1 cm can be diagnosed either by further imaging (eg, MRI tailored for liver lesion evaluation) and/or histology.
Mass > 2 cm
Enhancement in the arterial phase and washout in the portal venous phase is essential for the diagnosis of a liver lesion > 2 cm in a cirrhotic liver. More than 80% of masses > 2 cm in a cirrhotic liver are HCC[33,34]. An elevated AFP confirms the diagnosis.
These are vascular hepatic lesions. Hemangiomas contain fibrous tissue and small blood vessels that eventually grow and range in size from less than 1 cm in diameter to over 10 cm, the so-called “giant” cavernous hemangiomas.
The median tumor size of HCC patients with SEER historic stage A was 5.97 cm (range, 0.1–20).
Liver lesions are abnormal growths that may be noncancerous (benign) or cancerous. Benign lesions occur for a variety of reasons and are typically not cause for concern. Liver cancer is less common but more serious.
The estimated time needed for a HCC to grow from 1 cm to 2 cm was 212 days in patients with HBV infection and 328 days in those with HCV infection.
If a cyst is less than 1 cm in diameter, details of septation or other irregularities cannot be seen on US imaging. When cysts are that small, they are usually of no clinical importance, and we follow them expectantly.
Noncancerous (benign) tumors are quite common and usually do not produce symptoms. Often, they are not diagnosed until an ultrasound, computed tomography scan, or magnetic resonance imaging scan is performed.
Liver lesions are groups of abnormal cells in your liver. Your doctor may call them a mass or a tumor. Noncancerous, or benign, liver lesions are common. They don't spread to other areas of your body and don't usually cause any health issues.
Simple liver cysts are more often multiple than solitary, measure between 1 and 5 cm, and are typically asymptomatic.
Like all cancers, cancerous lesions of the liver are caused by changes to the DNA that make cells replicate uncontrollably. A primary risk factor of malignant liver lesions (hepatocellular carcinoma) is long-term hepatitis B or hepatitis C infection.
A lesion describes any area of damaged tissue. All tumors are lesions, but not all lesions are tumors. Other brain lesions can be caused by stroke, injury, encephalitis and arteriovenous malformation.
Focal lesions may frequently be concurrent with fatty liver, for fatty liver (including non-alcohol fatty liver disease and liver fat infiltration from other causes) is common in the general population [8-10].
Most benign liver tumors do not have symptoms. Symptoms usually do not develop until the mass is so big that it pushes on other organs. When this happens, it can cause upper abdominal pain, particularly on the right side.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
MRI scans can be very helpful in looking at liver tumors. Sometimes they can tell a benign tumor from a malignant one. They can also be used to look at blood vessels in and around the liver to see any blockages, and can help show if liver cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
Tumor Size and Staging
Tumor size is strongly related to prognosis (chances for survival). In general, the smaller the tumor, the better the prognosis tends to be .
The study defined tumors less than 3 cm as small tumors, and those that are more than 3 cm as large tumors, in 720 EGC patients. Meanwhile, tumors less than 6 cm in size were set as small tumors, while more than 6 cm as large tumors, in 977 AGC patients. The study has acquired the following results.
Hemangioma — the most common benign tumor of the liver. The tumors are abnormal blood vessels that grow by dilating. Most of these tumors do not cause symptoms and need no treatment. Some may bleed or cause pain and need to be removed.
Univariate analysis in our series showed that lesion size of 1.5 cm or less was a significant characteristic of benign liver lesions misdiagnosed as HCCs. Moreover, multivariate analysis showed that the lack of an increase in tumor size was an independent predictor of benign liver lesions.
With a lesion based analysis, the incidence of disappearing lesions ranges from 11%12 to 36%7 of initially detected liver metastases. With a patient based analysis, disappearing lesions have been shown to occur in 6%7–23%13 of patients treated for colorectal metastatic disease.