Medications used for a patient at risk or under anaphylactic shock are: Epinephrine. Epinephrine is given for its vasoconstrictive reaction; for emergency situations, an immediate injection of 1:1, 000 aqueous solution, 0.1 to 0.5 ml, repeated every 5 to 20 minutes is given.
Adrenaline is the mainstay of treatment for anaphylactic reactions. The Resuscitation Council (UK) advises administration of adrenaline intramuscularly into the anterolateral aspect of the middle third of the thigh. Adrenaline (1:1000) doses may be repeated after five minutes if there has been no clinical improvement.
- Administer Epinephrine if the patient has anaphylaxis.
- Provide oxygen.
- Start 2 large-bore IVs.
- Monitor respiration and prepare for intubation.
- Educate patients on the avoidance of allergic foods.
- Be ready to perform CPR.
- Monitor vital signs.
- Teach the patient to wear an ID bracelet.
The first step for treating anaphylactic shock will likely be injecting epinephrine (adrenaline) immediately. This can reduce the severity of the allergic reaction. At the hospital, you'll receive more epinephrine intravenously (through an IV). You may also receive glucocorticoid and antihistamines intravenously.
If you're with someone having an allergic reaction with signs of anaphylaxis:
- Immediately call 911 or your local medical emergency number.
- Ask the person if he or she is carrying an epinephrine autoinjector (EpiPen, Auvi-Q, others) to treat an allergic attack.
Epinephrine (Adrenaline, EpiPen, EpiPen Jr, Twinject, Adrenaclick) Epinephrine is the drug of choice for treating anaphylaxis. It has alpha-agonist effects that include increased peripheral vascular resistance and reversed peripheral vasodilatation, systemic hypotension, and vascular permeability.
Any person able to recognise anaphylactic reaction is permitted to administer intramuscular adrenaline injection for the purpose of saving life, whether they are a healthcare professional or not.
Adrenaline for Treatment of Anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis is a potentially life threatening, severe allergic reaction and should always be treated as a medical emergency. Adrenaline (epinephrine) injected into the outer mid-thigh muscle is the first line of treatment for anaphylaxis.
dilute 1 ampoule (1 mL) of adrenaline 1:1000 with 9 mL water for injection or normal saline. Inject intramuscularlyup to a maximum of 500 microgram (5 mL) according to the guide (approximates to 10 microgram/kg).
The best site for an intramuscular injection of adrenaline for the treatment of an anaphylactic reaction is the anterolateral aspect of the middle third of the thigh. The needle needs to be long enough to ensure that the adrenaline is injected into muscle.
The FIRST step the nurse should take is to immediately remove the allergen. This would be stopping the medication, and then call a rapid response. The nurse should maintain the airway and start CPR (if needed) until help arrives.
This medicine is injected under the skin or into the muscle of your outer thigh only. Do not inject this medicine into a vein, into the muscle of your buttocks, or into your fingers, toes, hands, or feet. To do so, may increase the chance of having serious side effects.
Q: What do you do if someone goes into anaphylactic shock without an EpiPen? A: Make sure that you've called 911. If antihistamines are on-hand, these can be administered and may provide some relief, but antihistamines are never a suitable medication for fully treating anaphylactic shock.
use the adrenaline auto-injector as soon as a suspected severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) occurs, especially any signs affecting the Airway (swelling of the tongue or a feeling of constriction in the throat), Breathing (wheezing, difficulty in breathing), or Circulation (feeling faint, dizzy, cold clammy skin)
The terms "anaphylaxis" and "anaphylactic shock" are often used to mean the same thing. They both refer to a severe allergic reaction. Shock is when your blood pressure drops so low that your cells (and organs) don't get enough oxygen. Anaphylactic shock is shock that's caused by anaphylaxis.
Adults – Start the IV epinephrine infusion at 0.1 mcg/kg/minute (range: 0.05 to 0.2 mcg/kg/minute) and increase it every two to three minutes by 0.05 mcg/kg/minute until BP and perfusion improve.
Epipen (epinephrine injection) is given as an intramuscular (in the muscle) or subcutaneous (under the skin) injection only in the middle of the outer side of the thigh (the upper leg). It can be injected through clothing if needed.
Current guidelines for both OHCA and IHCA recommend that epinephrine be given as soon as feasible when the initial cardiac arrest rhythm is nonshockable and after initial defibrillation attempts have failed when the initial cardiac rhythm is shockable.
Intravenous Push/IO: 1mg epinephrine IV is given every 3-5 minutes. IV infusion for bradycardia: 1mg epinephrine is mixed with 500ml of NS or D5W. The infusion should run at 2-10 micrograms/min (titrated to effect).
There is currently insufficient evidence to support or reject epinephrine administration during resuscitation.
For patients in cardiac arrest, administering epinephrine helps to restart the heart but may increase the overall likelihood of death or debilitating brain damage, according to a study published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.
This fast uptake of epinephrine is critical in the treatment of anaphylaxis. As opposed to the upper arm, the thigh muscle is one of the body's largest muscles with more blood supply, so it allows much faster absorption of the medication.
The product label of EpiPen, the only autoinjection epinephrine product approved in the US for anaphylaxis, recommends IM intramuscular injection into the anterolateral aspect of the thigh, but it also states that epinephrine, when given intramuscularly or subcutaneously, has a rapid onset of action, which supports ...