The roots of modern architecture can be traced to the 1893 Chicago World's Fair, which was composed entirely of cutting-edge buildings and cemented the United States' role as a world leader in art, architecture, and technology.
Modern architecture emerged at the end of the 19th century from revolutions in technology, engineering, and building materials, and from a desire to break away from historical architectural styles and to invent something that was purely functional and new.
Modernism was influenced by the Enlightenment (Age of Reason), which brought the Industrial Revolution. This influence was based on rationalism, a foundational term for the Enlightenment, which goes back to Descartes who saw the world as a machine, functioning by mechanical laws.
Other popular pioneers of modern architecture include Frank Lloyd Wright, Staatliches Bauhaus, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, and Le Corbusier. The modern design aesthetic was in full swing in the 1930s and became known as International Modernism or International Style.
With the closure of the Bauhaus school in 1933, the settlement of its last manager, Ludwig Mies von der Rohe, and other Bauhaus architects in the USA, led to the rapid spread of modern architecture in America.
Postmodernism is an eclectic, colourful style of architecture and the decorative arts that appeared from the late 1970s and continues in some form today. It emerged as a reaction to Modernism and the Modern Movement and the dogmas associated with it.
Modernism is a period in literary history which started around the early 1900s and continued until the early 1940s. Modernist writers in general rebelled against clear-cut storytelling and formulaic verse from the 19th century.
Key Points. Among the factors that shaped modernism were the development of modern industrial societies and the rapid growth of cities, followed by the horror of World War I. Modernism was essentially based on a utopian vision of human life and society and a belief in progress, or moving forward.
The power of machines forced artists to strategically re-think their practice, the results were revolutionary and still influences designers to this very day. This new technology provided the opportunity for mass production, and the machine itself became a theme in modernism.
Modernism in architecture
It was associated with an analytical approach to the function of buildings, a strictly rational use of (often new) materials, structural innovation and the elimination of ornament.
Born in Germany on March 27th 1886, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe is widely regarded as one of the pioneers of modern architecture, accelerating the post-war shift from classical ideologies of architectural design and construction methods.
In the first half of the 20th century, high-rise buildings and the first “skyscrapers” blended a use of metal framing and concrete to create a sculpted look for walls full of windows. Repeated geometric patterns and use of natural elements are also distinguishing features of modernist architecture.
New materials with superior construction and engineering capabilities allowed architects to design longer spans, taller structures and open floor plans. These new capabilities intrinsically changed the way buildings look and helped to brand the modernist architectural aesthetic.
Whereas the modern architecture makes use of steel or concrete structural frame, a practice generally not as robust as traditional construction because the constituent parts of the building are not integral. This aspect of modern architecture allows water penetration that ultimately weakens the structure over time.
Modernism was an artistic movement that started in Europe at the beginning of the 20th century and is generally considered to have developed until the 1950s. Many artists of the time believed that the previous styles were outdated and didn't meet the needs of the industrialized world.
How Modern Design Began. Modernism is a philosophical movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, categorized by abstract thinking that deviated from realism, romanticism, and renaissance beliefs in previous eras. Modernism in art and architecture, in particular, was popular during the 1940s to 1980s.
By 1914, and with the beginning of the First World War, Art Nouveau was largely exhausted. In the 1920s, it was replaced as the dominant architectural and decorative art style by Art Deco and then Modernism.
Although many different styles are encompassed by the term, there are certain underlying principles that define modernist art: A rejection of history and conservative values (such as realistic depiction of subjects); innovation and experimentation with form (the shapes, colours and lines that make up the work) with a ...
Modernists were people who embraced new ideas, styles, and social trends. For them, traditional values were chains that restricted both individual freedom and the pursuit of happiness. As these groups clashed in the 1920s, American society became deeply divided.
The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century AD.
The postmodern view of language and discourse is due largely to the French philosopher and literary theorist Jacques Derrida (1930–2004), the originator and leading practitioner of deconstruction.
Modern architecture focuses on creating a relationship between the material and structure by relating and adopting them to their present technological era, Whereas Post-modernist architecture emphasizes the vitality of historical elements in design.
Modernist artists experimented with form, technique and processes rather than focusing on subjects, believing they could find a way of purely reflecting the modern world. While modernism was based on idealism and reason, postmodernism was born of scepticism and a suspicion of reason.
Architectural style evolved into something much more graceful through the Byzantine and Romanesque periods. It was during 527 – 1200 that the majority of architecture began to use brick instead of stone, changing forever the way that buildings would be constructed.