In natural philosophy, later called natural science, Aristotle established methods for investigation and reasoning and provided a theory on how embryos generate and develop. He originated the theory that an organism develops gradually from undifferentiated material, later called epigenesis.
As the father of western logic, Aristotle was the first to develop a formal system for reasoning. He observed that the deductive validity of any argument can be determined by its structure rather than its content, for example, in the syllogism: All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore, Socrates is mortal.
Aristotle's greatest impacts can be seen in his creation of a logic system, established many fields of sciences, and creation of a philosophy system which serves as one of the foundation works of philosophy even to this day. Aristotle was the first person to create and widely disseminate a system of logical thought.
Aristotle's' zoology and the classification of species was his greatest contribution to the history of biology, the first known attempt to classify animals into groups according to their behavior and, most importantly, by the similarities and differences between their physiologies.
Charles Darwin is commonly cited as the person who “discovered” evolution. But, the historical record shows that roughly seventy different individuals published work on the topic of evolution between 1748 and 1859, the year that Darwin published On the Origin of Species.
Aristotle did not believe in evolution and viewed species as fixed and unchanging. A classification system for the species was developed by Aristotle: Scala naturae. Scala naturae arranged all living forms in linear hierarchy on a ladder of increasing complexity with perfect, permanent species on every rung.
After Aristotle had completed his great speculative system, philosophy moves toward a new emphasis. Four groups of philosophers helped to shape this new direction, namely, the Epicureans, the Stoics, the Skeptics, and the Neoplatonist.
The Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) made significant and lasting contributions to nearly every aspect of human knowledge, from logic to biology to ethics and aesthetics.
Aristotle did not believe in the atomic theory and he taught so otherwise. He thought that all materials on Earth were not made of atoms, but of the four elements, Earth, Fire, Water, and Air. He believed all substances were made of small amounts of these four elements of matter.
Aristotle has created a basis for a great deal of today's scientific knowledge, such as the classification of organisms and objects. Though erroneous by current standards, his four-element system of nature (i.e. minerals, plants, animals, and humans) has guided scientists for centuries in the study of biology.
In a book entitled Constitution of the Athenians, written in 350 BCE, the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle suggested that ancient Greeks thought that being a citizen was a natural state, according to J. G. A. Pocock.
Measurement and observation, the foundations upon which science is built, were Aristotle's contribution. He proposed the idea of induction as a tool for gaining knowledge, and understood that abstract thought and reasoning must be supported by real world findings.
John Dalton (1766-1844) is the scientist credited for proposing the atomic theory.
2.1 Atomism in Aristotle and Boyle. In Aristotle's time, atomists held that matter was fundamentally constructed out of atoms. These atoms were indivisible and uniform, of various sizes and shapes, and capable only of change in respect of position and motion, but not intrinsic qualities.
The moral theory of Aristotle, like that of Plato, focuses on virtue, recommending the virtuous way of life by its relation to happiness.
Aristotle was appointed as the head of the royal academy of Macedon. During Aristotle's time in the Macedonian court, he gave lessons not only to Alexander but also to two other future kings: Ptolemy and Cassander.
Aristotle became very famous for various reasons. One reason is that he was a very important thinker of politics, ethics, phycology, etc. Today, he is still considered as one of the greatest thinkers in these areas. Another reason is that he invented science and zoology.
Aristotle regarded psychology as a part of natural philosophy, and he wrote much about the philosophy of mind. This material appears in his ethical writings, in a systematic treatise on the nature of the soul (De anima), and in a number of minor monographs on topics such as sense-perception, memory, sleep, and dreams.
Aristotle's well-known function argument is less commonly accepted today, since he seems to use it in order to develop a claim about human perfection from an observation from what is distinctive about man. But the exact role of the function argument in Aristotle's ethical theory is itself a matter of dispute.
One of the political philosophers who influenced the framers was an ancient Greek, Aristotle. He lived, taught and wrote more than 2,000 years earlier. The writings of Aristotle helped guide the Philadelphia delegates in writing the new American Constitution.
In the early 19th century prior to Darwinism, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744–1829) proposed his theory of the transmutation of species, the first fully formed theory of evolution.
The Theory of Evolution by natural selection was first formulated in Charles Darwin's book "On the Origin of Species" published in 1859. In his book, Darwin describes how organisms evolve over generations through the inheritance of physical or behavioral traits, as National Geographic explains.
Aristotle's contribution to science is perhaps best demonstrated by his classic description of the growth of a chick inside an egg. How a chick hatches from an egg was not to be determined by philosophy, but rather by a simple experiment. Eggs were to be placed under hens and opened in sequence, one each day.
Sir Francis BaconSir Francis Bacon (1561–1626) is credited with being the first to define the scientific method. The scientific process typically starts with an observation (often a problem to be solved) that leads to a question.